Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy <p>The Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy (ABAP) will be useful to form a forum for scientists so that they can bring together to discuss and find scientific solutions to the problems of society. The annual meetings will help the members to share their knowledge and publish their research knowledge particularly by members and fellows of the Association and special care will be taken to provide an opportunity for young scientists. Besides this the association is planned to organize symposia, seminars and workshops on current developments of Biotechnology and Pharmacy particularly on the subject of current scientific interest, and the proceedings of which will be published regularly. And in view of the vast development of science and to disseminate the problems in publication of research work, an international journal of Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy has been started by ABAP.</p> en-US (Prof. K.R.S.Sambasiva Rao) (WebMaster) Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 Evaluation of the Chemo-Preventive Effects of Camellia sinensis Silver Nanoparticles and Synergistic Effects with 5-fluorouracil in Colorectal Cancer Induced Rats <p style="text-align: justify;">In the present study, the chemopreven-tive effect of green tea nanoparticles (GTNP) and synergistic effect between GTNP and 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) on 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colorectal carcinogenesis was studied in Wistar albino rats. GTNP synthesized and characterized by transmission electron mi-croscope (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested for their acute toxicity. All groups except for normal group re-ceived subcutaneous injections of DMH once a week for 5 weeks. GT group was treated daily with GTNP alone, GTFU group received both GTNP and intraperitoneal injection of 5FU once a week and 5FU group was treated with 5FU once a week for 16 weeks. In the GT group, a significant reduction in the number of aber-rant crypt foci (ACF) was observed suggesting the inhibitory effect of green tea in attenuating colorectal cancer progression. By comparing GTNP and GTFU treatment, there was a signifi-cant decrease in total ACF number in combined treatment of GT and 5FU compared to GT alone (13.33 ± 0.88 vs 25.00 ± 2.31, p &lt; 0.05). The total number of ACF in 5FU treatment alone was significantly reduced when compared to com-bined GTFU treatment (5.67 ± 2.19 vs 13.33 ± 0.88, p &lt; 0.05). These results suggested that green tea nanoparticles significantly inhibited ACF formation on DMH-induced colorectal can-cer which has led to no tumor formation. The large ACF only significantly reduced by this combined therapy compared to small ACF. In overall, it does not exert the synergistic effect between the combination therapy of GTNP and 5FU on colorectal cancer.</p> RatsSheba R David, Fatin Nur Najwa Hj Matzidi, Rajeshkumar Shanmugam, Lakshmi Thangavelu, Ashok Kumar Balaraman, Rajan Rajabalaya Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Formulation and Evaluation of Glibenclamide by Solid Dispersion Method using Compritol 888 ATO as a Carrier <p style="text-align: justify;">Glibenclamide is an antidiabetic drug that is poorly soluble, to enhance its rate of dissolution, it is formulated into solid dispersions using various polymers by solvent evaporation method. The present study aims to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drug Glibenclamide by solid dispersion technique using solvent evaporation method with various carriers such as Compritol 888 ATO, PEG 6000, at ratios (1:1,1:2 and 1:3) and to study the effects of carriers on the dissolution of the drug. The solid dispersions characterized by FTIR showed no possible interactions between drug and carriers, XRD results showed conversion of crystallinity of drug to its amorphous form. The <em>in vitro</em> results showed a significant enhancement in the dissolution rate of all solid dispersion prepared by solvent evaporation method when compared with the pure drug itself (39.82%). Among the two polymers, Compritol 888 ATO and PEG6000 the formulation SD9 containing Compritol 888 ATO as a carrier at 1:3 ratio showed the highest rate of dissolution (99.17%), thus the concentration of carriers used in this study played an important role in enhancing dissolution. This study concludes that Glibenclamide’s dissolution rate can be significantly increased using Compritol 888 ATO and PEG6000 as polymers by solvent evaporation and lyophilization method, from which Compritol 888 was chosen as the best polymer for enhancing in-vitro dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug Glibenclamide.Keywords: Glibenclamide, Fast Dissolving Tablets, Synthetic polymer, Compritol 888 ATO, Antidiabetic</p> Jeremiah Immanuel, Narayanasamy Damodharan, Abdhul Kareem Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 In Vitro anti-Protozoan Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Caralluma procumbens Against Tritrichomonas foetus <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Tritrichomonas foetus</em> is a flagellated venereal parasite that causes<em> Trichomoniasis. </em>Among various infections, <em>Tritrichomonas </em>infection is a major threat to animal husbandry contributing to heavy economic loss due to fetal deaths or abortions. Plants are a great source of a variety of secondary products that consist of different bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. Species of <em>Caralluma </em>are known to be sources of potential therapeutic molecules. However, no studies have been carried out on the anti-protozoan activity of <em>Caralluma procumbens</em> against <em>Tritrichomonas foetus</em>. Hence the effect of different concentrations of<em> Caralluma </em>extract on the growth and survival of <em>Tritrichomonas foetus </em>was examined. Methanolic extract of <em>Caralluma procumbens,</em> at the concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/ml inhibited the growth of <em>Tritrichomonas foetus </em>completely after 24 hours of incubation. A concentration of 2 mg/ml inhibited 80% growth of <em>Tritrichomonas foetus </em>after 48 hours of incubation with <em>Caralluma</em> extract. The results of the current study suggest that <em>C. procumbens</em> could be suitable for treatment and prevention of protozoan induced Trichomoniasis and prove to be an effective therapeutic strategy without any nonspecific effects. Further studies in this line will help in identification of effective structural bioactive components present in the methanol extract of <em>C. procum</em></p> Rajani Vemula, Gayathri Pachipala, P.V.B Reddy, Sathish Kota , M. Raman, Uday Sankar Allam, Kota Neela Manikanta, Kiranmai Chadipiralla Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Cloning, Expression, Purification and Contraceptive Efficacy Studies of a GnRH Receptor Based Recombinant Fusion Protein <p style="text-align: justify;">The need for a contraceptive vaccine to control stray dog population is very essential in the current scenariowith increasing incidence of rabies and dog bites. It is seen as a viable non-surgical alternatemethod to spaying and castration.In the present study, a recombinant protein comprising of Gonadotropin Releasing hormone (GnRH) and Gonadotropin Releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) were assembled along with the T cell epitopes of tetanus toxoid and canine distemper virus and was studied to explore its potential in contraception. The GnRH and GnRH receptor genes were successfully cloned into pET28a vector and expressed in BL21 DE3 bacterial expression system and further purified using Ni-NTA purification system.The resultant recombinant protein was expressed in <em>E. coli </em>to give rise to a 30kDa fusion protein. Further confirmation of the recombinant protein was done by western blot using Anti-His antibody. The mice were immunized with the GVAC09 fusion protein along with Freunds adjuvant. ELISA studies revealed the generation of a high antibody titre against the immunogen.<em> In vivo</em> contraceptive studies oftheGVAC09 immunized mice led to a decrease in litter size. From the current study with the proven immunocontraceptive potential of the recombinant protein, with further improvements GVAC09 recombinant protein has the potential to be a viable contraceptive vaccine to control stray dog population.</p> Nathaniel Philip Sandam, Prakash Dhamodhar, Prashanth Thimmareddy Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Endophytic Bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens(Pj2) Im-parted Growth Promotion and Enhanced Drought Stress Tolerance of Peanut <p style="text-align: justify;">Endophytic bacteria have been described for abiotic stress mitigation and plant improvement. The present study aims to isolate the endophytic bacteria from stress-tolerant <em>P.juliflora </em>plant roots and evaluate properties of PGP <em>in vitro</em> and the effect of endophyte in non-host plants i.e, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under drought stress conditions. Among the fifteen individual endophytic bacterial strains isolated, five strains (Pj2, Pj4, Pj6, Pj10, Pj12) displayed drought tolerance. Further, one of the selected strains <em>Bacillus amiloliquefaciens</em> TG4 (Pj2), produced extracellular enzymes and plant growth-promoting activities. Plant growth-promoting activity of Pj2 in a non-host crop, the peanut, was established by infecting it, and its effect was studied in induced drought stress for ten days. The Pj2 inoculation positively affects peanut growth morphological and biochemical parameters under irrigated and drought stress conditions compared to non-inoculated plants. Our data suggest that peanut plants can be colonized with the endophytic bacteria for improved drought tolerance.</p> Suresh Raju Kandi, Sravani Kunduru, Krishna Kumar Guduru, Preetham Naik KT, Naga Rathnamma Y, Chandra Sekhar Akila, Chandra Obul Reddy Puli, Siva Bolupalli Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Phytochemical Screening, Qualitative Analysis and Isolation of Endophytes from Selected Medicinal Plants <p style="text-align: justify;">The medicinal plant Azadirachta indica and <em>Moringa oleifera</em> have great nutritional values and are being studied here. Even every part of these plants like leaves, stem bark, roots, seed, pods have its own nutritional value and positive impact on human health. Both of these medicinal plants bears important properties like anti-bacterial, antitumor, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunity booster.Analysis of bioactive compound of these medicinal plants can provide a helping hand to pharmacy for treatment of such kind of diseases. These medicinal plants possess Phytoconstituents like steroids, alkaloid, saponins, tannins, and flavonoid. Endophytes (both Bacteria and fungi) are also found on these medicinal plants. Phytochemical screening of extract by using standard method like salkowaski test for steroid and that for saponin foam test showed result that of Azadirachta indica (leaves) in both the solution (n- hexane and distil water) showed absence of steroid and saponins. During analysis of extract of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> (leaves) with n- hexane showed absence of steroid and saponins but in the case of distil water there is presence of steroid and saponins. On the other hand the leaves of both plants contain bacterial and fungal endophytes.Leaves of <em>Moringa </em><em>oleifera </em>and Azadirachta indica contains some bacterial and fungal endophytes. The results with Azadirachta indica leaves showed that the bacterial colonies (on TSA media) appeared at 10-2 and 10-3 and the fungal endophytes (on SCA media) were not appeared at any dilutions. Whereas the results with <em>Moringa oleifera </em>leaves showed that the bacterial colonies (on TSA media) appeared only at 10-2 dilution and the fungal endophytes (on SCA media) appeared at 10-3 and 10-4 dilutions</p> Pankaj Jangid, Hansa Mathur, Anjali Arya, Harish Kumar Dhingra, Navneet Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 A Comparative In Silico Analysis on Frequency and Distribution of Microsatellites in Whole Genome Sequences of Three Pathogenic Candida species and Development of SSR markers for Diversity Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;">The species of the genus Candida are well known for their ability to cause fungal colonization and infection in humans, which is commonly known as candidiasis. Among them, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis are reported to be frequently occurring pathogenic species, which are responsible for superficial and systemic infection. In the present study, we surveyed the microsatellites in the available whole-genome sequences of three pathogenic species viz. C.albicans, C.glabrata and C.tropicalis. The relative abundance and density was higher in C.albicans when compared to C.glabrata and C.tropicalis. Thirty microsatellite primers were designed, ten from each species, for genetic characterization of Candida isolates belonging to six Candida species. Of the 30 markers, only nineteen showed amplifications. A total of 32 alleles were amplified by 19 primers with an average of two alleles per marker. Ten markers showed 100% polymorphism. The markers were found to be more polymorphic (75%) in C.albicans as compared to C.glabrata and C.tropicalis, however, polymorphic information content was the maximum (0.75) in CgSSR 4. Twelve polymorphic markers obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the utility of newly developed markers in establishing genetic relationships among different isolates of Candida.</p> Pallavi Singh, Ravindra Nath, Vimala Venkatesh, Prashant Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Hepatoprotective Activity and Antioxidant role of Hymen-odictyon excelsum Bark Against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats <p style="text-align: justify;">Hymenodictyon excelsum Wall. belonging to the family Rubiaceae, is a medium deciduous tree grown in Himalayas and used traditionally in Sikkim, North-East India for different medicinal purposes. The present work investigated the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Hymenodictyon excelsum stem bark (MEHE) against paracetamol-evoked hepatic lesions in rats. Liver toxicity was elicited in Wistar albino rats by single oral administration of paracetamol at the dose of 640 mg/kg body weight. Then MEHE was given orally to rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 16 consecutive days. Silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight) similarly was employed as reference drug. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed by the determination of hepatic functions viz. SGOT, SGPT, ALP, billirubin and total protein; hepatic tissue antioxidant parameters namely lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and histopathological examination of liver. In MEHE treated rats, the foregoing liver function and tissue antioxidant parameters were significantly restored, when compared to paracetamol control. Histopathological study of the liver tissue demonstrated maintenance of normal hepatocellular architecture in MEHE treated rats as compared with paraetamol control, thus affirming the protective role of MEHE in paracetamol-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. From the present study in can be concluded that, Hymenodictyon excelsum bark possesses marked hepatoprotective potential in paracetamol-invoked hepatic damage in rats by virtue of its antioxidant role in vivo.</p> Biswakanth Kar, Goutam Ghosh, Goutam Rath, Sanjib Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Irinotecan <p style="text-align: justify;">Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes involved into the processes of DNA replication and transcription. Irinotecan a semi-synthetic analogue of Camptothecin, is a pro-drug converted at the liver and at the intestinal level by the enzyme carboxylesterase into the active metabolite SN-38, with an enhanced antitumor activity. The SN-38, like other topoisomerase I inhibitors, causes an irreversible double-strand rupture that leads to cell death.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The main pharmacodynamics characteristics of Irinotecan are described, focusing on its adverse effects and clinical use.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Actually, Irinotecan is widely used, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics, for the treatment of different tumors, including mainly carcinomas (colon, stomach, lung, ovary and uterus), lymphomas, and pediatric tumors such as neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, PNET and brain tumors. Irinotecan metabolism is a complex process, involving numerous effective proteins both in the activation to SN-38 and in the reactions leading to biliary or renal elimination of the drug and its metabolites. The main toxicity is gastrointestinal, mainly nausea and vomiting and delayed diarrhea, and more rarely mucositis and neutropenia. The adverse effects occur with a significant interindividual variability for both onset and severity.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Promising possibilities to customize and optimize therapy with Irinotecan to reducing adverse reactions while increasing clinical efficacy, based on the predictive role of gene markers have been recently reported.</p> Attinà G, Mastrangelo S, Ruggiero A Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Clinical and Economic Aspects of the First Biosimilar Eculizumab use in Patients with Rare Diseases <p style="text-align: justify;">In March 2019, Elizaria® (JSC «GENERIUM»), the first biosimilar of eculizumab, was registered in Russia. This is the world’s first experience in the release of a full-cycle biosimilar of eculizumab, including the production of a substance. Comparative non-clinical and clinical studies demonstrated the absence of toxicity, good tolerance, and comparability with the original medicinal product. Besides Russia, Elizaria® is currently registered in Belarus and Kazakhstan, and marketing activities are carried out in 14 countries. In 2019, Elizaria® already accounted for more than 75% of government purchases to provide patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. The total expenses for these two rare diseases in 2020 amounted to about 8.9 billion rubles, while the introduction of a Russian biosimilar, the registered cost of which is 25% less compared to the reference medicinal product, in 2020saved about 2.6 billion rubles and helped increase the number of patients receiving the therapy.</p> Ivan S Krysanov, Vera S Krysanova, Viktoriya Yu Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 SARS-CoV2 Breakthrough Infections in Elderly Third Booster and Vaccinated Population Considered Vaccine Immune During Omicron (B.1.1.529)Variant Surge in Israel <p style="text-align: justify;">The fourth booster vaccination was approved in Israel during Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant surge due to increasing SARS-CoV2 breakthrough infections among recently vacci-nated, reasons for this resurgence is not clear.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In this Observational study, we analyzed verified SARS-CoV2 infections among over 60 years of age based on vaccination schedule (December 20, 2020-January 29, 2022); infec-tions, severe illness and deaths based on vac-cine immunity (between August 1, 2021-Janu-ary 29, 2022) using Israel COVID-19 dashboard data.<strong> Read more...</strong></p> Venkata R Emani, Dheeraj Nandanoor, Raghunath Reddy, Abirath S Nakka, Kartik K Goswami, Shaila R Emani, Nikhila K Reddy, Kailash R Maddula, Nidhi K Reddy, Sanjeev Goswami Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 SARS-CoV-2 Associated Mutations, Strain Variations and Mortality During the First Epidemic Wave in India: A Study. <p style="text-align: justify;">India is no different to global health havoc created by SARS-COV-2 outbreak, although the appearance of different waves and the magnitude of losses varied. The study of the first wave on timeline is of utmost importance due to the alarming emergency and lack of preparedness to deal with the new virus which entered the gene pool. Besides, population density and RNA virus mutation rate might have led to more strain variants. In the present study, comparative analysis of thirty-nine complete or nearly-complete genomes of SARS-COV-2 during the first wave of COVID-19 in India was made and a number of mutations were observed. These observations further supported the evidence for genetic basis of rapid evolution of the virus.</p> Neha Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Latest Evidence in the Pathogenesis of Uterine Fibroids <p style="text-align: justify;">Uterine fibroids (UF) are extremely common neoplasm affecting in up to 8 out of 10 women during middle or late reproductive years leading to significant morbidity. Some of the serious complications associated with UF including abortion, abnormal foetal formation, obstructed labour, postpartum haemorrhage in pregnancyand premature deliveries in pregnant women’s whereas heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding, pelvic pressure, anaemia, urinary incontinence, constipation and infertility in non-pregnant women’s.Hormonal irregulation particularly estrogen hormone, genetics, epigenetics, environmental factors, and lately gut microbiotahave been associated in the pathogenesis of UF.The most common indication for UF is hysterectomy, whereas medications available less effective in most cases.There are various review articles have been published on UF in the past a decade. However, up to date review that comprehends epidemiology, pathogenesis, physiopathology, classifications of UF not discussed in detail. Thus, our goal is to explore and scrutinize every aspects within the topic to help provide absolute understanding on UF.</p> Yap Vilien, Dharmendra K, Mogana Rajagopal, Malarvili Selvaraja Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400