Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy <p>The Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy (ABAP) will be useful to form a forum for scientists so that they can bring together to discuss and find scientific solutions to the problems of society. The annual meetings will help the members to share their knowledge and publish their research knowledge particularly by members and fellows of the Association and special care will be taken to provide an opportunity for young scientists. Besides this the association is planned to organize symposia, seminars and workshops on current developments of Biotechnology and Pharmacy particularly on the subject of current scientific interest, and the proceedings of which will be published regularly. And in view of the vast development of science and to disseminate the problems in publication of research work, an international journal of Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy has been started by ABAP.</p> Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy en-US Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 0973-8916 Management of Febrile Neutropenia in Children with Cancer <p>Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the most common complication of childhood cancer treatment with mortality rates of untreated patients up to 21%.</p> <p>The recognition and management of FN is fundamental to preserve the children health status and avoid life-threatening complications. Physical and laboratory assessments should be performed in every patient with FN to identify any potential site of infection to be promptly treated. Hence, an empiric antimicrobial therapy remains the gold standard for the management of these patients. Antimicrobial treatment should be based on local epidemiological data and antibiotic susceptibility; a combination of a fourth-generation antipseudomonal cephalosporin with an aminoglycoside is generally adopted. Empirical administration of glycopeptides, in absence of documented Gram-positive bacterial infection is not recommended for routine use. Despite the progress in the management of febrile neutropenia and its relatively low mortality, the emergence of resistant pathogens is increasing, and the development of new effective antimicrobials are needed. Established criteria for a risk adapted approach is still lacking and no definitive data supporting the duration of empiric treatment are present. De-escalation strategies should be implemented to reduce both antibiotic exposure and resistance as well as hospital stay.</p> Giorgio Attinà Raffaele Tepedino Antonio Ruggiero Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 115 123 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.13 Evaluation of Nutritive, Non-Nutritive Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Polyherbal Formulations <p style="text-align: justify;">Efficacy and safety of polyherbal formulations was based on non-nutritive and nutritive contents. Present work deals with estimation of non-nutritive phytochemicals such as total phenolic and flavonoid compounds, antioxidant activity and nutritive elements and heavy metals content of polyherbal formulations of <em>Sitopaladi</em> and <em>Talisadichurna</em>. Results have revealed that total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of <em>Sitopaladichurna</em> extracts were rich in SC1 followed by SC3, SC2 and SC4, and in case of <em>Talisadichurna</em> extracts, the order was TC3 followed by TC2, TC1 and TC4. This specifies that substantial positive linear correlation occurred between total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The herbal formulations disclosed higher scavenging ability with DPPH, ABTS.+ and reducing power than standard ascorbic acid. The extracts displayed better antioxidant activity which also contains higher phenolic contents, indicating that there was a correlation. Findings unveil that herbal formulations were found to be rich source of macro and micronutrients. Furthermore, heavy metals such as Arsenic, Chromium, Cadmium and Lead were not detected at noticeable concentrations in herbal medicines and Mercury concentrations were below the detection limit (&lt; 0.3 mg/kg).</p> Harika Patnala Ramana G. V. Hari Babu B. Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 124 132 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.14 Immunological Evaluation of Influence of Dose and Route of Immunization with FMD Serotype ‘A’ Vaccine in Guinea Pigs <p style="text-align: justify;">A study has been conducted to measure the immunization efficacy of route of inoculation between intra dermal (ID) and intra muscular (IM) in guinea pigs, using FMD vaccines. Three different vaccine formulations of varying concentrations containing full dose, 1/5<sup>th</sup> dose, 1/10th dose were prepared and injected either intra muscularly or intra dermal to six different groups of guinea pigs. At 30<sup>th</sup> day post vaccination, all the animals were challenged. Efficacy of route was defined in terms of serum neutralizing antibodies, IgG1 and IgG2 isotype response and challenge studies. When compared with guinea pigs that were intramuscularly vaccinated with a full dose vaccine, guinea pigs vaccinated intra dermal with 1/5<sup>th</sup> dose of the vaccine were 60% protected against clinical disease. Thus, we conclude that ID route is a good alternative for IM route, as ID route has shown to induce a very efficient immunological response against FMD. Moreover, the dose required by the ID route is lower compared to the IM route with an added benefit of reduced requirement of antigen and costs per dose of FMD vaccine.</p> Rashmi L K. Ganesh S. Kishore V. V. S. Suryanarayana G. R. Reddy Prithvi S Shirahatti Ramith Ramu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 133 140 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.15 Molecular Approach Towards Screening of Biological Targets of Berberine and its Production Sources <p style="text-align: justify;">Traditional medicine dating back to centuries ago has been used to treat several ailments of humans. Berberine is a chemical compound that is found in plants which is being used in the form of drugs to work against various diseases. For optimum production of Berberine suitable plant species must be selected out of <em>Coptis japonica</em> and <em>Argemona mexicana</em> which are high yielding. From the pathway of Berberine production it is known that more the amount of substrate Canadine gives more amount of Berberine. The objective of this work is to compare the Canadine production efficiency among <em>Coptis japonica</em> and <em>Argemona mexicana</em> by molecular level studies for both the species. It is concluded that the enzyme, (S)-canadine synthase from Argemona mexicana is more efficient towards the production of (S)-canadine which in turn lead to Berberine production. Later the efficiency of Berberine against various disease targets is tested by molecular docking approach under same experimental conditions. Molecular docking results conferred the efficiency of Berberine in the treatment of gastric cancer over the other diseases.</p> Jhansi Preetham Garrepelly Kiranmayi P Y N L Thanuja Bandari Rajeswara Reddy Erva Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 141 152 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.16 C4 Photosynthetic Enzymes Engaged in the Habituation of Allium cepa L. Seedlings to Drought Stress <p style="text-align: justify;">Drought is one of the major stress which affects agricultural crop productivity around the world. In this study the role of Phos phoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC, NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME, EC, and pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (PPDK, EC in different onion cultivars (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) under drought stress was investigated.An elevated specific activity of these three enzymes was monitored in onion cultivars after 8 h of drought stress. With the increasing concentration of drought there was an increase in C4 enzyme activities. PEPC showed 3.5-fold increase after 24 h, NADP-ME 3.9-fold, and PPDK 3.2-fold increase was observed in Arkalalima (AL)onion after 48 h when compared to control. Statistical analysis including regression analysis suggested significant results to onion drought resistant cultivars under drought stress condition. The results revealed that the variety AL exhibited best response followed by Arkakirthaman (AK) and Bellary(BL). Therefore PEPC, PPDK and NADPME participate in the drought response of onion, a C3 Plant. Future research will allow further understanding of the drought stress mechanism of adaptation of the onion germplasm to drought.</p> Riazunnisa K Rajesh N Chandramati Shankar P Surendranatha Reddy E. C Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 153 163 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.17 Pharmacokinetics of Piroxicam Pharmaceutical Forms: An Experimental Study <p style="text-align: justify;">Research into new ways to administer medications within the body remains relevant. The study aims to analyze the particularities of piroxicam kinetics in zein-pectin complexes during ex vivo experiments in a medium simulating the gastrointestinal tract of laboratory rats. Studies were performed in 2019 with 30 laboratory Wistar rats. During 3 days, rats received 2.5 ml of 2% pectin solution per day. The ratio between pectin and zein was 3:1. Rats were mortified, and their intestines were then dissected into 3-cm fragments. The obtained samples were placed in containers with 5 ml of saline phosphate buffer solution (solution pH = 6.4). Gastrointestinal contents and pectin apple and citrus complexes with low methylation were incubated to study the kinetics of piroxicam. Pectin complexes varied in dry carrier mass: the citrus complex was 1.3 times greater than the apple complex (pd”0.05). It was also observed that the release time of 50% of the volume of piroxicam was 1.3 times faster for the citrus complex (pd”0.05) than for the apple complex. In terms of swelling index, citrus complexes were 1.9 times larger than apple complexes (pd”0.01). Citrus complexes contained a lower concentration of piroxicam (1.3 times, pd”0.05) relative to apple complexes. The longterm effect of piroxicam release from pectin complexes was established during the experiment. This is likely due to the slow swelling of the ion part of the polymer mesh under hydrophobic solution conditions. The latter was represented in the experiment by the phosphate buffer and the content of the gastrointestinal tract. The limiting factor that influenced the release kinetics of piroxicam from pectin complexes is its diffusion process from the pectin complex. A high correlation was observed between the 50% piroxicam release and the square root of time in both complexes (0.98). Apple pectin was 3.0 times larger than the constant (p d”0.01). The kinetics analysis demonstrated their linear directionality over approximately 40 hours.</p> Irina Menshikova Oksana Zakharova Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 164 171 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.18 Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic Nature of some Boswellic Acid Derivatives by Molecular Docking Method <p style="text-align: justify;">Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and the rising trend in the globe has created great concern in recent times. Since the synthetic drugs used to treat diabetes causes a large number of side effects, so the discovery of a novel plantbased drug molecule is necessary. The gum resin of <em>Boswellia serrata</em> contains a large number of molecule used to treat many numbers of diseases including the diabetes mellitus. The present work is an <em>in silico</em> approach to identify the boswellic acid derivative that can be suitably used for diabetes treatment. The ligand boswellic acid derivatives for the present study were obtained from searching the PubChem database followed by filtration and energy minimization of the molecules were performed. The receptor molecular structure of human alpha-amylase and alphaglucosidase were retrieved from the Protein Data bank (PDB). Molecular docking was performed by using the Autodock Vina tool. The alpha boswellic acid (PubChem ID 637234) showsthe highest affinity towards the selected two enzymes. Then the amino acid binding residues, as well as the pharmacokinetic properties of these derivatives, were predicted and analyzed. After overall analysis, the alpha boswellic acid showed an excellent pharmacokinetic profile, except for solubility. Hence it was predicted to be the best inhibitor among the selected boswellic acid derivatives and can be used to treat diabetes mellitus.</p> Raghunath Satpathy Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 177 181 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.19 CNT based high-κ dielectric Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Based Cholesterol Biosensor <p style="text-align: justify;">Carbon nanotube (CNT) based high-κ dielectric ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) based cholesterol biosensor has been realized using Polyethylenimine (PEI) doped CNT channel and nanocomposite of potassium doped CNT with polypyrrole as sensing membrane.Device has been fabricated using solution method and electrical characterization of the device has been carried out after immobilization of enzyme cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) in presence of PBS solution.Device has shown a wide dynamic range (0.5 to 25mM), a good sensitivity of 60 mV/ decade,low response time (~1 s), low detection limit (0.23 mM), good stability (7 months) and high selectivity (interference ~1.8 %).</p> Gaurav Keshwani Jiten Chandra Dutta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 182 188 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.20 Astrotactin-2: Docking with Flavoinoids, Functional, Pathway and Disease Associations <p style="text-align: justify;">Astrotactin protein that is ASTN-1 and ASTN- 2 are important perforin proteins that are involved in neurodevelopment. Mutations in this protein is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and has been found functional in Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s diseases, Autism Spectrum Disorder, cancer etc. Genes for ASTN protein expressed in brain and functional in brain development any mutation in this gene leads to abnormal growth and functioning of brain. ASTN- 2 protein id functional in protein trafficking and regulation of neuronal growth and development increased expression of this protein can also result in neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study detailed analysis has been done on ASTROTACTIN-2 protein to identify potential ligands that show strong interaction with ASTN-2 protein. 7 ligands were selected from PubChem database and Docking was performed to analyze the protein-Ligand interaction map. Result shows that Morin and Quercetin shows the best interaction with the Glide Score of -8.26 and - 8.15 and at positions GLN790, LEU833, THR878 and EU833, GLN962 respectively. Protein -Protein interaction study was also done to identify interacting proteins that are functional in neurodevelopment and can be associated with neuronal disorders. This study detailed about the ligand interaction, protein function and protein interaction Astrotactin-2 protein.</p> Ruchi Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 189 197 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.21 Role of Preliminary Data Collection for Nutritional Education of Adolescent (13-15 yrs) in Two Different Regions of South India <p style="text-align: justify;">The study aims at ascertaining the most appropriate communication media to be used to bringing about preliminary data for nutrition education in children for sustainable development. The present investigation was undertaken with the major objective focusing on “Assessment of Nutritional Status and impact of nutrition education among Adolescents (13-15 Yrs) of Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh and Chennai in Tamil nadu”. Total number of subjects from different schools of the two places was 600. Among 600, 300 subjects (both girls &amp; boys) belong to Vijayawada and 300 subjects (both girls &amp; boys) from Chennai. After the selection and briefing the results were constructed based on study protocol, which was constituted based on major areas like - Prevalence of malnutrition, Socio demographic status of the subjects, family type, religion, academic performance, family members education, their occupation and monthly income, finally adolescents socioeconomic status. It was observed in the present study that a large proportion (81.25% in girls and 87.50% in boys) of Vijayawada and (72.41% in girls and 40.47% in boys) of Chennai adolescents under study was normal. This may be due to socio-economic status (SES) of their parents. Which if continued in future, can have long lasting effect on improvement of nutritional status and healthy lifestyle.</p> Hemamalini K Babitha B Lalitha Kumari B Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 198 212 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.22 A New Insights and Novel Targets for Hyperglycemia from Foxtail Millet (Setariaitalica L.) using Molecular Docking Studies <p style="text-align: justify;">The inhibition of α-glucosidase and α- amylase, enzymes which are implicated in the digestion of carbohydrates, can evidently decrease the post-prandial increase of blood glucose levels. It can be an significant approach in the management of blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic and borderline patients. At present, there is renewed attention in plant-based medicines and functional foods modulating physiological reactions in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity. The plant kingdom is a extensive field to investigate for natural effective oral hyperglycemic agents that have insignificant or no side effects. Consequently, natural α- glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors from plant sources offer an prominent strategy for the control of hyperglycemia. Nowadays majority of the people divert towards millets and taken the millets as a meal in the place of rice as because they show key results on who are suffering from hyperglycemia. Foxtail millet [<em>Setariaitalica</em> (L.) P. <em>Beauv.</em>] is a member of poaceae grass family found in both arid and semi-arid regions which is principally used as a fodder and cereal crop. All the food products prepared from foxtail millet are efficient in reducing the blood glucose levels both in normal as well as diabetic patients. To identify human α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors phenolic compounds (Vanillic acid, Ferulic acid) and flavonoid (Kaempferol) of foxtail millets were screened using the structural based molecular docking approach. The findings of this study revealed that all the tested compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against both the enzymes. Comparatively among the three inhibitors tested kaempferol flavonoid was more effective with - 261.79Kcal/mol and -404.66Kcal/mol of binding free energy values against α-amylase and α- glucosidase correspondingly. This insilco study paves the way to further research on foxtail millets (<em>Setariaitalica</em> L.) inhibitory compounds associated with hyperglycemia.</p> Vigneshwara Reddy B Chandra Mohan Reddy C.V. Akila Chandra Sekhar Puli Chandra Obul Reddy Srinivasulu K Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 213 219 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.23 Kinetic Studies of Aspergillus ficuum Tannase Enzyme and its Application in Detannification of Grape Juice <p style="text-align: justify;">This investigation was carried out to study the characterization and kinetics of the partially purified <em>Aspergillus ficuum</em> tannase enzyme for commercial scale application in the clarification and detannification of juices like grape. pH, temperature and optimum substrate concentration were determined for the tannase enzyme activity from <em>Aspergillus ficuum</em>. Also, the Crude and partial purified enzyme were tested for detannification grape juice quality characteristics. Results evidenced that it was found that the optimum partial purified tannase parameters were: temperature 50 oC, PH 5.5 and substrate concentration 1.6% as a tannic acidwith 6.155 specific activities of partial purified tannase enzyme with 225.46% relative activity higher than its control. The tannase enzyme showed a higher temperature and lower pH optima than the soluble enzyme and showed 81.61% and 66.36 % tannin removal from grape juice by crude enzyme and partial purified enzyme treatment, respectively at 37 oC, which has not been reported earlier. Also, maximum velocity of reaction (Vmax) and Michaeli’s constant (Km) values were 0.72 and 1.45 for partially purified tannase enzyme activity, respectively. Overall the quality of grape juice was better in partial pure tannase treated juice compared with untreated and crude enzyme treated juice. The present study exposed thatthis enzyme could demonstrate a valuable tool for a number of biotechnological applications. Also, the application of this enzyme on juice clarification also states that it can be employed in fruit juice processing for removal of tannin efficiently.</p> Hesham A. Eissa Heba Dahdooh Wafaa A. Ibrahim Heba A. El-Refai Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 15 2 220 232 10.5530/ctbp.2021.2.24