Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy <p>The Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy (ABAP) will be useful to form a forum for scientists so that they can bring together to discuss and find scientific solutions to the problems of society. The annual meetings will help the members to share their knowledge and publish their research knowledge particularly by members and fellows of the Association and special care will be taken to provide an opportunity for young scientists. Besides this the association is planned to organize symposia, seminars and workshops on current developments of Biotechnology and Pharmacy particularly on the subject of current scientific interest, and the proceedings of which will be published regularly. And in view of the vast development of science and to disseminate the problems in publication of research work, an international journal of Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy has been started by ABAP.</p> Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy en-US Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 0973-8916 Can Structural Differences Between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Explain Differences in Drug Efficacy? <p style="text-align: justify;">The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV)and severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), both virus spike proteins are recognized by the cell surface receptors, human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2).These viruses gain access into the host cell through ACE-2receptors.The main aim of the current study was to elaborate on the structural differences in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 that bind at the same active binding site. The crystal structures of receptor bound spikes of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 were compared using UCSF Chimera and pyMOL software which revealed significant differences in the receptor binding domain of the spikes with variation in the amino acid residues. It was also observed that conformational changes occurred in the amino acid residues at the binding site on ACE-2 receptor. These conformational changes in ACE-2 binding site of SARS-CoV-2 were attributed to a greater number of contacts forming between RBD and active binding site when compared to that of SARS-CoV and could explain any differences in the effectiveness of drugs against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. In addition, using Autodock vina software, drugs that were found to be effective in SARS-COV treatment were docked at active binding site on ACE-2.Antivirals, ACE-2 inhibitors and corticosteroids were docked at the active binding site domains of ACE-2 receptor in SARS-CoV andSARS-CoV-2.Antivirals such as Oseltamivir, Umifenovir, Favipiravir, Remdesivir and antibiotics such as Moxifloxacin and Azithromycin, Ace-2. Antivirals inhibitors such as Losartan and steroids such as Dexamethasone have shown a greater negative docking score (indicating more binding affinity) in and SARS-CoV-2 when compared to that of SARS-CoV. This kind of preliminary analysis using computational techniques could help in screening and repurposing the existing drugs that are potential in treating new diseases such as CoVID-19.</p> Sridivya Raparla Xiaoling Li Jay S Srava Sowmya Jasti Bhaskara R. Jasti Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 233 240 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.25 Papain Mitigates Carbontetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Via Attenuation of Oxidative StressHemalatha. <p style="text-align: justify;">Liver plays a central role in transforming and clearing toxic substances present in the body. Excessive exposure of liver to toxic agents results in hepatic damage. Certain medicinal agents in therapeutic value cause hepatotoxicity in rats due to which withdrawn from the market. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of papain (PN) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Briefly, the rats were divided into four groups of seven animals in each group. Group 1 served as normal control and received water as vehicle. Group 2 received CCl<sub>4</sub> 0.5 ml/kg intraperitoneally. Group 3 received PN 80mg/kg (p.o, daily) in phosphate buffer for 7 days and CCl<sub>4</sub> 0.5ml/kg i.p on 7<sup>th</sup> day. Group IV received PN 80mg/kg (p.o, daily) in phosphate buffer with disodium edentate (EDTA) for 7 days and CCl<sub>4 </sub>0.5ml/kg i.p on 7th day. The protective effect of PN was measured biochemically and histologically in blood/liver and liver respectively. Treatment with PN significantly (p&lt;0.001) reversed CCl<sub>4</sub> induced oxidative hepatic damage which was measured by estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH). CCl<sub>4</sub> induced elevation in serum hepatic markers (like AST, ALP, ALT, total bilirubin) were significantly reverted in rats by pretreatment with PN. The biochemical observations were paralleled by histopathological findings in rat liver both in CCl<sub>4</sub> and treatment groups. In conclusion, Papain attenuates CCl<sub>4</sub> induced hepatic damage by mitigating oxidative stress which was confirmed by histology suggesting its use as a protective agent against hepatotoxicants.</p> Hemalatha V Sai Lakshmi Prathima S Harika G Sireesha B Lavanya Y Niranjan Babu M Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 241 247 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.26 Evaluation of In-vitro Cytoprotective, Wound Healing and Antioxidant Effects of Ocimum sanctum Leaf ExtractChetna <p style="text-align: justify;">Exposure of renal epithelial cells to Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals leads to cellular injury and play a significant role in the formation of kidney stones. Additionally, lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids further accelerates the generation and progression of the disease. Availability of safe and effective treatment of the disease is the need of hour. The objective of this research work was to evaluate the impact of hydro-alcoholic extract of <em>Ocimum sanctum </em>leaves on renal epithelial cell injury, oxidative stress and wound healing. Renal epithelial cells (Vero cells) were exposed to Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to cause injury and then injured cells were treated with <em>Ocimum sanctum</em> extract. Cell viability of the treated group was compared against control using MTT assay. Antioxidant potential was evaluated using malondialdehyde content as biomarker. Wound healing potential was evaluated using scratch assay. A significant increase in cell viability and wound closure rate was observed in the treated group compared to that in control group was observed. We observed reduced malondialdehyde content in the treated group as compared with control. It can be concluded that hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of <em>Ocimum sanctum</em> possesses strong cytoprotective, antioxidant and wound healing potential and can be effective in the prevention and treatment of kidney stones.</p> Chetna Faujdar Priyadarshini Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 248 255 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.27 Evaluation of Pharmacodynamic Interaction Between Berberine and Antibacterial Drug (Azithromycin) in Albino Wistar Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Background:</em> Evaluation of pharmacodynamic interaction between Berberine and antibacterial drug (Azithromycin) in Wistar rats.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Method: </em>The study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial and antitubercular activities of a combination of berberine and azithromycin against microorganisms (E. coli, S. aureus) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using Alamar Blue Assay respectively. The compatibility and hepatoprotective activities of Berberine were also carried out against the azithromycin-induced hepatotoxicity rat model.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Result: </em>The combination of berberine and azithromycin does not show any compatibility with a single-drug investigated by the Rf value, and synergistic effect against S. aureus and E. coli represented a significant zone of inhibition. Azithromycin showed in-vitro antitubercular activity at all concentrations, and berberine at 6.25μg/ml. Berberine and azithromycin co-administered for 28 days result in increased body weight, albumin level, total protein, and decreased serum transaminase, alkaline phosphatases, and total bilirubin significantly.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Conclusion:</em> The combination of berberine and azithromycin does not show physical interaction, results in no alteration in the drug absorption, and showed antibacterial activity. Phytoconstituents showed antitubercular activity at different concentrations. The hepatoprotective action of berberine was proven by the evaluation of biomarkers of liver and body weight. Histopathological reports of the liver revealed that herbal mixture improves hepatocellular vacuolation and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Finally, based on in-vivo studies concluded that combination showed increased hepatoprotective activity in comparison to individual herbal drug.</p> Suchita Gupta Reena Gupta Jitendra Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 256 267 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.28 Anticancer Potential of Phytoconstituents Modulating Na+/K+ ATPase Pump; A Novel Repurposing Strategy <p style="text-align: justify;">Repositioning the drugs through poly-pharmacological approaches, including cancer therapy is gaining scientific interest, as many non-cancer targeting drugs have well-established safety profile but unexplored for its potential to combat cancer. The complex heterotrimeric protein Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA) is complex. It is existing on the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells and makes use of ATP for the maintenance of sodium and potassium transport. It has three subunits, α, β and γ. The α-subunit has four isoforms namely α1, α2, α3, and α4. One of the published studies reports that the α1 subunit is over expressed and activated in certain malignancies like renal cell carcinoma, glioma, and melanoma. Thus, it is hypothesized that NKA has unique roles in cancer cell growth and development. For instance, Ouabain is a well-known inhibitor of NKA which is used primarily as a cardiac stimulant has also been recently reported for its potential anticancer properties in neuroblastoma cells. Consequently, the search for the molecules which has the potential to inhibit specific NKA in cancer cells gaining tremendous scientific attention. Recently perillyl alcohol has been reported for anticancer potential through NKA inhibition.Sinceperillyl alcohol has a cyclic ring in its structural frame,we opted the similar chemical signatures of Phyto terpenes and phytotannins of for our study.Thus, the present study opted for scaffold repurposing strategy using <em>in-silico </em>methods to identify and screen some of the well-known phytocompounds for its possible anticancer effects by inhibiting NKA.</p> Suresh Kumar Niladri Saha Shyam Sundar P Naresh P Jubie S Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 268 281 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.29 Extraction, Screening, and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera: Extends Life-span of Caenorhabditis elegans <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Moringa oleifera</em> is the most commonly cultivated species of the Moringaceae family. It has high nutritional value and a remarkable range of therapeutic uses. Every plant part is beneficial in many ways including medicinal uses. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of various phytochemicals and bioactive compounds from &nbsp;flowers and leaves and to check its effect on lifespan extension of <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em>. InitiaM.&nbsp;oleiferal phytochemical screening of flowers and leaves methanolic extracts estimated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, and vitamin C. Further quantitative analysis revealed a considerable concentration of phenols, vitamin C, and flavonoids. The plant extracts also showed<em> in vitro </em>antioxidant activity through DPPH, FRAP, and reducing power assay. TLC analysis was performed for the optimization of a specific solvent system suitable for the separation of various compounds. The characterization performed by UV absorption, GC-MS and FTIR revealed the presence of palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and linoleic acid. Moreover, the <em>in vivo </em>life-span assay was carried out on <em>C. elegans. M. oleifera</em> extracts were applied to <em>C. elegans</em> to investigate its anti-aging potential. The extracts were applied to N2 wild-type worms in different concentrations such as 10μg/ml, 20μg/ml, and 40μg/ml. Treatment with plant extracts showed an increase in lifespan from 2 to 8 days. The effect of Moringa on <em>C. elegans </em>proved its antiaging potential and the compounds characterized have potential antioxidant activities that can be further purified and used in pharmaceuticals.</p> Anita P Chauhan Dhwani M Patel Jatin D Pate Niraj Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 282 298 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.30 Phytotoxicity of Tetracycline and Amoxicillin on Vigna radiata and its Remediation Potential in Hydroponic System <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of tetracycline and amoxicillin on Vigna radiata and its remediation potential in hydroponic system. Germinated seeds of Vig-na radiata were planted with varying concentra-tions of tetracycline and amoxicillin (150 – 500 mg L−1) in triplicates (n=3) for three weeks. Tox-icity biomarkers, i.e. changes in plant biomass, photosynthetic pigment, phenol, flavonoid con-tent and antioxidative enzymes were estimated after completion of 3 weeks. The results illus-trated that high tetracycline concentration (500 mg L-1) in hoagland media resulted decrease in total chlorophyll content (3.045- 2.252 mg total chlorophyll /g tissue) while in case of amoxicillin, chlorophyll content was increased (5.18 - 7.309 mg total chlorophyll /g tissue). Carotenoid, Total flavonoid and phenolic content, were also sig-nificantly (p &lt; 0.05) reduced due to toxicity of these antibiotics. Antioxidant enzyme like cata-lase showed 7.22 % degradation in their activity with highest concentration (500 mg kg-1) of tet-racycline and 27.3 % degradation was found in case of amoxicillin. Glutathione peroxidase ac-tivity was also decreased in both of the cases. Subsequently, the Vigna radiata showed 63% remediation potential with tetracycline and 93 % in case of amoxicillin. Hence, overall results indicate that, the phytoremediation rate shown by Vigna radiata is very promising and these antibiotics also showed its toxicological impact on plants.</p> Ekta Bhatt Pammi Gauba Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 299 314 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.1 Molecular Pharming: A New Approach for a Healthy Future by a Vast Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry <p style="text-align: justify;">Molecular pharming is a process in which different biopharmaceuticals are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) such as microbes, transgenic animals (TAs) and transgenic plants (TPs). Out of these, transgenic plants are more advantageous as they are safer, cheaper and they do not require cold storage systems. The advent of the biotechnological arena have paved the way to transform genetic material to host organisms such as plants, thereby to produce recombinant proteins (RPs) in a large scale. It could be observed that the current techniques used to produce pharmaceuticals are not much safer and they are not affordable by developing countries. Therefore the production of RP by molecular pharming is essential. Current demand for RPs is increasing rapidly for diagnosis and pharmaceutical purposes, while scientists have developed edible vaccines and drugs for certain diseases. Currently new approaches are been carried out to develop vaccines against deadly diseases such as Dengue and Ebola using molecular pharming. Therefore molecular pharming have generated new hopes in the minds of the suffering population with these deadly diseases.</p> Suhashini Marian Silva SP Kithmini Siridewa Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 315 324 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.32 Science Diplomacy: Revisiting a New Health Paradigm in Manoeuvring the Pandemic <p style="text-align: justify;">A silver lining of late has been the witnessing of the real-time results of diplomatic relations in various areas including science technology innovation and especially vaccine development. A global problem calls for a joint action by participating countries to pool their resources together and find a solution the benefits of which reach beyond several borders. A well grounded international relation among countries in these times of pandemic needs to be further strengthened not just for the development of more potent vaccines but also for cementing ties in the areas of biotechnological or scientific advancements. The history is witness to the fact that such efforts have also provided an opportunity to look closer and deeper into the strategies that have not worked optimally in the past. Such a critical look at the performances in the desired areas at international level almost always delivers a better focused pragmatic solution. Emerging from several rounds of cross-border discussions and deliberations, the diplomatic exercises have already begun to bear fruits. The comity of nations is a more coherent whole today the proof of which is evident enough on multiple fronts of global public health.</p> Mazumdar M Rahman M Prasanna NK Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 325 329 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.33 An Approach Towards Method Development to Investigate the Anti-Diabetic Activity on Experimental Animals <p style="text-align: justify;">lants are used predominantly as the source for diabetes treatment; some plants are authenticated scientifically worldwide for their active constituents. The occurrence of diabetes mellitus has been developed by establishing a large variety of experimental animal models. This development aims to analyze the available diabetic experimental animal models applied as tools to evaluate the mode of action of various drugs and their significant antidiabetic activity. Diabetes research is performed in rodents, even though some experiments are still carried out in larger animals. The current review outlines several methods of induction of diabetes in rodents and large animals and to establish the mechanism through which the available drugs show their potentiality against the development of diabetes. Preferably, we should study multiple animal models over the human diabetic person to signify the drugs’ antidiabetic potential. Most of the plants prove their efficacy towards diabetic disorder conditions by different underlying mechanisms based on various experimental animal models. Presently, the process for evaluating the traditional antidiabetic medicines is hardly useful for testing raw plant materials that are used conventionally for the treatment of diabetes; and natural components, mostly isolated from plants, have been examined in chemically induced diabetic models. This review article proposes new approaches for developing novel antidiabetic drugs and treating this severe disease condition that signifies a worldwide public health issue.</p> Sasmita Dash Gurudutta Pattnaik Biswakanth Kar Nityananda Sahoo Sanjib Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 330 348 10.5530ctbp.2021.3.34 Emergent Roles of Garlic-Based Nanoparticles for Bio-medical Applications -A Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em> L.) is well renowned for its antimicrobial potential and broadly consumed spice globally for its medicinal properties. Moreover, several studies advocate that garlic contains many bioactives that demonstrate strong therapeutic properties in treating cardiovascular diseases, digestive system, diabetes, cancer, obesity, hypertension, inflammation, antioxidant, and viral infection. Presently, therapeutics of natural origin are drawing major interest among consumers due to their antimicrobial efficacy and safety. Garlic extracts, chitosan by- products, several spices and antimicrobial peptides are illustrations for such products. The present review paper inspects briefly the major active ingredients and key biological functions of garlic-based nanoparticles discussing the relevant mechanisms of actions.</p> Suresh Babu Naidu Krishna Copyright (c) 2021 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 15 3 349 360 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3.35