Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy <p>The Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy (ABAP) will be useful to form a forum for scientists so that they can bring together to discuss and find scientific solutions to the problems of society. The annual meetings will help the members to share their knowledge and publish their research knowledge particularly by members and fellows of the Association and special care will be taken to provide an opportunity for young scientists. Besides this the association is planned to organize symposia, seminars and workshops on current developments of Biotechnology and Pharmacy particularly on the subject of current scientific interest, and the proceedings of which will be published regularly. And in view of the vast development of science and to disseminate the problems in publication of research work, an international journal of Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy has been started by ABAP.</p> Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy en-US Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 0973-8916 Antioxidant Assay of Bryophyllum gastonis bonnieri at Salt Stress <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Bryophyllum gastonis bonnieri</em> is a folk medicine as it consists of many antioxidants that protects against oxidative damage, and include compounds to remove or repair damaged molecules. The work is carried out for qualitative and quantitative phytochemical responses of plant to salt stress. When the plant is subjected to various strengths of NaCl (0, 25, 50, 75 &amp; 100 mM) the growth of the plant is reduced due to stress induced. In salinity stress the plants responses by the accumulation of enzymatic antioxidants which react against the free radicals produced (Kanika Patel <em>et al</em>, 2011). <em>Bryophyllum gastonis bonnieri</em> subjected to 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of salt stress has shown reduction in heightening of plant, amount of leaves and relative growth rate was reduced with increased in sodium chloride treatments. During salinity stress free radical level increased dramatically resulting in oxidative damage to cells. The plant overcame this damage by increased accumulation of antioxidants which neutralize free radicals.&nbsp;</p> Preeti S. Kumarmath Sharada P Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 5 361 364 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.26 Growth and Nutritional Indices of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Different Substrates <p style="text-align: justify;">Lignocellulosic wastes such as agricultural wastes, forestry residues, grasses and woody materials represent huge amount of unutilized renewable resources and are generated every year throughout the world through agricultural practice, paper-pulp industries, timber industries and many agro-industries. The largest reservoir of fermentable carbohydrates is mostly wasted in the form of pre-harvest and post-harvest agricultural losses and wastes of food processing industries causing environmental pollution. Mushrooms are rich in protein, edible fiber and minerals but lipid content is low. Cultivation of mushrooms is a prime factor for the conversion of this low value inedible wastes into a higher value commodity which can serve as food material for humans and as a source of commercially important metabolites. Oyster mushroom is commercially important and is best known for its taste, flavour, high nutritional values and some medicinal properties. In the present study, Oyster mushrooms (<em>P. ostreatus</em>) were grown on different substrates viz., Paddy straw, banana leaves and coconut coir. Growth and yield studies were undertaken and harvested mushrooms were also studied for their nutritional indices. Biological efficiency of the substrate was also determined. It was observed that all the three substrates were efficient as substrate for mushroom cultivation. Results of the present study also indicated that the studied mushrooms have good nutritive value for human although the nutritional content varied with each substrate.</p> Sangeetha Menon Syeda Ayesha Pavithra K Malsawmtluangi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 5 365 372 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.27 Photosynthetic Based Technology For The Bioremediation Of Domestic Sewage Water Using Anoxygenic Bacteria <p style="text-align: justify;">Bioremediation employs the use of naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non-toxic substances. The conventional treatment method of domestic sewage water is expensive and generates waste sludge that requires further handling and the problem of disposal of sludge into the environment is risky as it has a high potential to pollute the environment. The development of a simple and cost effective process allows the implementation of bioremediation in a safer and effortless manner. Therefore in this investigation microbiological and chemical analyses were very useful to suggest the best ways to improve bioremediation limits in domestic sewage water. In the study indigenous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were isolated from domestic sewage water to treat domestic sewage waste water, to develop a costeffective process for bioremediation. Domestic sewage water was analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, TDS, TSS, TS, DO, BOD, COD, total sulphate and chlorides using bio inoculants of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria isolated and domestic sewage water in an suitable light, pH and temperature conditions. The results showed that among the 3 anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria isolated; isolate RP2 (<em>Rhodopseudomonas palustris</em>) could grow well at pH 8, temperature 30°C and also reduce more pollutant parameters in domestic sewage water during bioremediation in the period of four consecutive weeks at the rate of 80%.</p> Katherin Sylvia Ashutosh Kumar Fc Lalsiamliani Mayank Nagotra Malaiyarasa Pandian Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 373 378 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.28 Genotoxicity of Momordica cymbalaria on Bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino mice <p style="text-align: justify;">Genotoxicity is described as the property of the agent to cause changes in the genetic material leading to damage in the genetic information, such agents are called as genotoxins. This property is much seen in drugs that are used in the treatment of cancer. Cyclophosphamide is an anticancer drug that lead to gene toxicity through formation of its metabolites and generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals that damage the genetic material. The main objectives of this research is to evaluate the effect of <em>Momordica cymbalaria</em> (10mg/kg and 50mg/ kg) on cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and also to study the genotoxic effect of <em>Momordica cymbalaria </em>(50mg/kg) without Cyclophosphamide treatment. The dose selection was made based on previous acute toxicity report. Animals were treated with <em>Momordica cymbalaria</em> and bone marrow cells were been isolated to observe the effect of drugs on the chromosomes and cellular division through chromosomal aberration assay and micronuclei assay respectively. Effect of drugs on the anti-oxidant enzymes such as glutathione and cellular lipid peroxidation was studied using the liver homogenate. The test drug <em>Momordica cymbalaria</em> showed significant genoprotective effect in dose dependent manner against the chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation induced by Cyclophosphamide. And also there was significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and rise in GSH levels indicating the anti-oxidant property of the test drugs. The drugs <em>Momordica cymbalaria</em> has significant gene protecting effect in cells from Cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity</p> Melvin Mariyam Varghese Kusu Susan Cyriac Raju Koneri Srikanth Darisi Vinushree B N Gayathri Suresh KP Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 379 384 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.29 Isolation, Optimization and Molecular Characterization of Novel Lipase Producing Lysinibacillus macroides FS1 from Oil Rich Sample for Biodiesel Production <p style="text-align: justify;">Lipase is one of the promising biocatalyst in field of Enzymatic Biodiesel production. Screening of lipase producing bacteria and its media optimization facilitates enhanced lipase production. Considering the advantages of enzymatic biodiesel production using lipases the objective of present work was to isolate lipase producing bacteria and its media optimization. Bacterial strain were isolated from oil rich sample showing maximum zone of hydrolysis on TBA Media was selected and identified as <em>Lysinibacillus macroides</em> FS1 by 16SrDNA gene sequence analysis. Lipase production was carried out in production media and lipase activity of 3.1U/ ml was assayed by titrimetric method. Various media parameters were optimized and maximal lipase activity of 16.75U/ml were observed at 48 hr of incubation in optimized media with Honge oil as inducer, Galactose as carbon source , Ammonium Chloride and Beef extract as source of nitrogen, pH 7 and 37ºC temperature with agitation speed of 120 rpm. Under optimized condition 5.4 fold increases in the lipase activity than innate activity was observed. 50.74% yield was observed with specific activity of 21.25U/mg after purification with 30% ammonium sulphate. Purified lipase was stable in presence of methanol at 37°C. Results obtained shows that Lipase from <em>Lysinibacillus macroides</em> FS1 was promising biocatalyst for Biodiesel production.</p> Shilpa K Jigajinni Bharati S Meti Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 385 394 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.30 A Study on the Cytotoxicity of plectranthus amboinicus and bacopa monnieri stem Extracts on Lung Cancer Cell Line <p style="text-align: justify;">Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Many treatment modalities have been developed and the need for plant derived therapeutic is growing due to the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic agents. The present study aims to discover the potential of two herbs <em>Plectranthus amboinicus</em> and <em>Bacopa monnieri</em>. Screening for the bioactives in the methanolic extracts of <em>Plectranthus amboinicus</em> and <em>Bacopa monnieri</em> stem showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, saponins, carbohydrates. A comparative study on the cytotoxicity of methanolic extracts of the stem of these plants on lung epithelial cancer cell line A549 and normal fibroblast cell line L929 revealed that both extracts possess cancer cell specific cytotoxic activity. However, <em>Bacopa monnieri</em> stem extracts were found to be more effective in inducing cytotoxicity than <em>Plectranthus amboinicus</em>.</p> Anixa Zara George Kaveri Anil Calistus Jude A.L. Srinivasan Srinivasa Sundar Rajan R Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 395 400 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.31 A study on impact of medicinal plants Polyalthia longifolia and Bacopa monnieri with reference to acne treatment <p>One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Nowadays, researchers more than before are dependent on medicinal plants for discovery of new drugs with fewer side effects. Hence, it is need of the hour to screen for such novel plant sources and bring out its unexplored medical applications to cure and prevent lifestyle diseases like Acne. In this study, plant components were isolated and were studied against propionic bacteria, which cause acne in humans.</p> Esther Shoba R Allwin Michael Samuel Reinhard T Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 401 405 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.32 Survey on crop varieties and agricultural practices of Karnataka <p style="text-align: justify;">Soil biota helps the soil in carrying out multiple functions. Non sustainable agricultural practices over years degrade the soil quality. Continuous application of chemical fertilizers in order to expect more profit in terms good harvest leads to the degradation of soil. It also cause an adverse effect on soil by favoring the selective growth of microorganism which lead to the elimination of the beneficial organisms. The study was carried out to isolate and enrich the beneficial soil microorganisms and formed as a consortium of bio-fertilizer to ameliorate the soil of barren land. After the systematic application of the formulated bio-fertilizers, the quality parameters of soil has slowly improved, evident with the soil physicochemical characteristics and the yield of the selected crops.</p> U Sivagamasundari Shahi P Ismail Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 406 410 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.33 Rhizosphere competent Pseudomonas indoloxydans (F3-47) as a plant growth promoter and enhancer of Zea mays L. under greenhouse and field trials <p style="text-align: justify;">A rhizospheric bacterium belonging to the genus <em>Pseudomonas </em>isolated from the rhizosphere of maize was evaluated for the plant growth promoting and biocontrol traits. The strain was subjected to the different PGP and biocontrol traits such as ammonia, IAA, siderophores, phosphate solubilisation, ACC deaminase, HCN production, cellulase, pectinase and chitinase activity. 16S rRNA sequencing showed maximum homology with the strain <em>Pseudomonas indoloxydans </em>IPL-1(NR115922).<em> In vivo </em>plant growth promotion assay with the strains on maize seedlings showed a significant increase in the biometric parameters with respect to the number of shoots (32%) and roots (27%) and its fresh weight (20%) and dry weight (54%). Different formulations of the strain tested in fields revealed that the maize plants treated with the talc and lignite formulations showed a considerable increase in the growth of maize when compared to the plants without any treatment. The study concluded that the rhizosphere strains<em> Pseudomonas indoloxydans </em>(F3- 47) could be a potential plant growth promoter for future exploration in agriculture.</p> Reena Josephine CM Jibu Thomas Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 411 418 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.34 Production and Characterization of Bioactive Peptides by Purified Protease Isolated From Bacillus Sp. Mtcc 9558 <p style="text-align: justify;">Enzymes are extensively studied for its use in production of bioactive peptides, and due to their great potential they find enomorus commercial applications. The study is use of purified protease in protein hydrolysis for bioactive peptide production and its applications. The protein rich natural sources such as spirulina, yeast, casein, soy protein and β-lactoglobulin were selected and were prepared as protein substrates of protease. Upon reaction, the peptides samples were analysed for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antithrombotic properties. Antioxidant activities and potential of the protease from <em>Bacillus</em> sp. to generate antibacterial peptides from different natural protein sources was also studied. The results of antithrombotic activity of bioactive peptides from different protein sources indicated inhibitory activities on the thrombin-catalyzed coagulation of fibrinogen. The potent inhibitory effects were observed for casein peptides. The peptides were termed bioactive peptides as they exhibited the above mentioned activities. The bioactive peptides were also characterized and profile of its amino acid content was determined. The presence and characterization of bioactive peptides were confirmed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and LC-MS-MS analysis. The results were analyzed for the presence of essential amino acids. The results indicated that the protein peptides have potential applications as food supplements. As the protease hydrolyzed peptides containing hydrophobic amino acids, are much useful in reducing the bitterness by removing these amino acids. Therefore, <em>Bacillus</em> sp. protease may have the scope to eliminate the bitter taste by selective hydrolysis of bitter peptides and may offer possibilities for debittering of protein hydrolysates and utilization of non-conventional food sources.</p> Roopa Prasad Ananthakrishnan Jayakumaran Nair Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 419 424 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.35 Antimicrobial and Antioxidant activity of Fermented Bamboo Shoot Dendrocalamus hamiltonii <p style="text-align: justify;">Bamboo is a perennial, woody grass, belonging to the Poaceae Family. Different bamboo species have been found to have therapeutic applications and studies have shown that bamboo have medicinal uses such as anti-cancer activity, anti-oxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-diabetic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-fertility activity and antihypertensive. In this study, fermented bamboo was used for extraction of phytochemicals and analysis of their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The extract was characterized by FTIR. The acetone and methanol extracted yield of 25.78% and 31.08% respectively. The scavenging activity with ascorbic acid for methanol showed 17.3 % for 10 mg/ml whereas no activity for acetone. But extract showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.</p> Sonia Angeline M Challaraj Emmanuel ES Ramtovan Nonglait Balahuling Suting Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 425 436 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.36 Water quality analysis of ground water from locations in North Bangalore <p style="text-align: justify;">Water quality can be defined as the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water, usually in respect to its suitability for a designated use. Water has many uses, such as for recreation, drinking, fisheries, agriculture and industry and the quality of the water for each of the above-mentioned uses have different defined chemical, physical and biological standards necessary to support that use. We expect higher standards for water we drink and swim in comparison to that used in agriculture and industry. Water quality standards are put in place to ensure that the water is safe to use and also supports efficient utilisation of water for that specific purpose. Water quality analysis is to measure the required parameters of water, following standard methods, to check whether they are in accordance with the standard and provides us an opportunity to monitor the water quality on a regular basis. Groundwater is generally an excellent source of water for drinking, cleaning, bathing, irrigation and industrial purposes. The quality of water invariably is contaminated in many ways by natural, agricultural and anthropogenic activities with the release large number of pollutants into the water bodies. The objective of this study is to perform qualitative analysis of some physicochemical parameters of groundwater in study area. This may be considered as reference for the society to get cautious about the impending deterioration of their environment and health.</p> Sonia Angeline M Vijayanand S Priya Josson Akkara Andrea Gretel Nitin John Maria Josephine Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 437 443 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.37 Anti-inflammatory attributes using Protein denaturation by Deca-noic acid (Saturated fatty acid) Isolated and Identified from Tridax-procumbens L <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Tridax procumbens</em> is a common herb with significant medicinal properties traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. In the present investigation the compound isolated from ethanol extract of <em>T. procumbens</em> exhibited high antifungal, against clinically important human pathogens such as <em>Candida albicans </em>and <em>Malassezia</em> sp with low MIC values, the compound later evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by protein denaturation method and showed moderate results, than the compound also tested for clot Lysis activity and the results indicated that the compound has a good clot Lysis activity. The fractionation of ethanol extract with dichloromethane yielded an oily viscous semi-solid drug with Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory and Clot Lysis activities which was separated by PTLC and Column chromatography and subjected to further identification and structural elucidation by spectral analysis such as FT-IR, Proton NMR and GC–MS, Spectral analysis and interpretation of spectral data revealed that the isolated compound was the Decanoic acid (Saturated fatty acid. This study demonstrated the efficacy of this herb and isolated compound against clinically important Dermatophytes, Anti-inflammatory and Clot Lysis activity. These research findings also justified that the <em>T. procumbens </em>was strong traditional medicinal plant used by our ancestors in India.</p> LHanumantappa Bherigi Nayaka Lallungawii K Malsawmtluangi Mary MS Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 444 451 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.38 Growth Response of in vitro regenerated Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. to inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Drymaria cordata</em> (L.) Willd. ex Roem. &amp; Schult. commonly known as ‘West Indian Chick weed’ is a potential herb used in traditional medicine in the treatment of many ailments. The main active principles therapeutically are known as drymaritin and isovitexin. <em>Arbuscular mycorrhizae</em> (AM) are symbiotic associations between plants and soil fungi that play a vital role in plant growth and development as well as soil quality. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to determine the growth responses of in vitro regenerated <em>Drymaria cordata</em> to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Both normal and<em> in vitro </em>regenerated plants of <em>Drymaria cordata</em> were inoculated with <em>Glomus mosseae </em>and <em>Glomus fasciculatum</em>. All the inoculated plants showed significant morphological results over control after a period of 30, 60 and 90 days of inoculation in polyhouse pot experiment. The percent of colonization and the number of spores in the rhizosphere of the in vitro regenerated plants are significantly more than the normal plants. Inoculation of <em>in vitro</em> regenerated plants with <em>Glomus fasciculatum</em> showed maximum mycorrhizal inoculation effect. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased the biomass, root and shoot length, plant height, leaf area, number of branches, number of nodes per branch and internodal length. Such increases were related to the intensity of mycorrhizal association in the root. These findings indicate that mycorrhizal inoculation can be a suitable and alternative method to improve the growth of <em>Drymaria cordata</em>.</p> Indira MN Tejavathi DH Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 452 458 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.39 Comparative Analytics of urine sample reported with Urinary tract infection <p style="text-align: justify;">Urinary tract infection (UTI) has been reported most often in recent days. In a clinical aspect there are various reasons for this cause. Out of 100 samples tested (Clinical samples from Rashi Diagnostic Center- Bangalore NABL laboratory), under the analytical aspect several comparative analysis was done. Urine was tested within half an hour of the collection. Physical characteristics of Urine sample were studied initially. Laura M is the device used to analyses the Uro-dip. Sugar and the presence of albumin was also found. Sediment of the centrifuged sample was subjected to gram staining and direct microscopic analysis. Pus cells, epithelial cells, yeast cells and rod shaped bacteria. It was found that epithelial cells are visualized in female samples and very less or not visualized in male samples. Bilirubin content, Bile salt content and ketone bodies were analyzed and compared in each of the samples. Sample is then subjected to culturing were the T streak is done on the Mac Conkey agar and Blood agar. This will differentiate between the lactose and Non-Lactose fermenting bacteria. Each of the colony is subjected to Gram staining. Yeast cells are also reported often. Though the yeast cells are the commensals they are considered non- pathogenic. But it was found that the yeast with pseudo-hyphae are pathogenic in nature. Both Lactose and Non-Lactose fermenting bacterial colonies from Blood agar is subjected to various biochemical methods to identify the organism. The most commonly noticed non-lactose fermenting organism was Pseudomonas spp. And Lactose fermenting organisms were Escherichia coli, Enterobacteria spp and Klebsiella spp. Each Colony from the culture plate was picked and streaked on the MHA agar and Kirby Bauer method has been performed (Disc diffusion method) under the McFerland standard. Zone of inhibition of each organism towards the antibiotic in the disc was recorded.</p> Kushbu R Rame Gowda CC Shilpa R Gowda Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 459 466 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.40 Anti Hemolytic Activity of Rutin incase of Phenyl Hydrazine induced Hemolysis <p style="text-align: justify;">The important role of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) is to transport oxygen to the tissues from the lungs to provide oxygen to all cells. During circulation, RBCs are continuously exposed to both endogenous and exogenous sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can injury the RBC and ruin its function. The imbalance between cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanism leads to Oxidative stress. Flavonoids are low molecular weight secondary polyphenolic metabolites present in plants characterized by their flavan nucleus. Rutin is a flavonol plentiful in a variety of commonly ingested foods. The term ‘Rutin’ came from a plant known as Ruta graveolens that also encompasses Rutin. Teas and fruits have high concentration of Rutin. Buckwheat seeds (<em>Fagopyrum esculantum</em>) are the richest source. Rutin protects the body from cellular damage caused by free radicals with its antioxidant properties. It helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body and increase elasticity of the arterial walls, which in turn promotes greater blood flow. The present investigation was aimed to assess the antihemolytic activity of the Rutin using phenyl hydrazine as hemolysin. This study uses RBC as model system to access the anti-hemolytic activity of Rutin using phenyl hydrazine as hemolysin. Phenyl hydrazine which was used previously in treating sickle cell anemia was used in this investigation as hemolysin. The result of the study shows that the addition of phenyl hydrazine [1-500 μg/ml] to the RBC suspension caused significant (P&lt;0.01) rise in hemolysis. The cell pellet in the bottom of the tubes reduced to reddish colored supernatant indicating hemolysis. The effect was concentration dependent. The present investigation clearly indicates that phenyl hydrazine causes hemolysis and toxicity to RBC. The concurrent addition of phenyl hydrazine along with the test compound Rutin (100-500 μg/ml) to the RBC suspension significantly (P&lt;0.01) reduced phenyl hydrazine induced hemolysis in a concentration dependent manner. The protective effect of Rutin on the hemolysis induced by phenyl hydrazine clearly shows it acts as anti-hemolytic agent. This finding was compared with the standard ascorbic acid. IC50 value of Rutin and ascorbic acid were 160.86 and 163.5 μg/ml respectively. The Rutin extract showed maximum inhibitory effect 500μg/ml. This shows that Rutin can be effectively used as anti-hemolytic agent.</p> Shree Ramani Satodeepa Basak Puneeth S Karthick Mahato Malathi R Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 467 470 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.41 Green mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ipomoea quamoclit to explore the potential antimicrobial activity against human pathogens <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Ipomoea quamoclit</em>, a medicinal plant, known as a common medication for stomach ache, hemorrhoids and rheumatoid arthritis, has been employed for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in the current study. The phytochemical analysis of this plant revealed that it is rich in phenolics, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates, triterpenes compounds. The present study has demonstrated an ecofriendly and safer method for developing a simple and cost effective production of silver nanoparticles using <em>Ipomoea quamoclit</em> flowers, leaves and seeds. The formation of nanoparticles was supported by color change and UV-Vis spectroscopy, showed maximum absorption peak at the range of 400-450 nm. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-Infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscope, demonstrated spherical and oval shaped nanoparticles in the sizes ranging between 25 and 45 nm. The phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles have shown a remarkable antimicrobial activity against tested gram negative and gram positive pathogenic organisms such as <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> PAO1, <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>, <em>Serratia marcescens</em> and <em>Micrococcus luteus</em> by conventional agar well diffusion in a dose dependent manner. The observations of the present investigation appear to be promising and offer a valuable agent for antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. Among the various nanoparticles, the silver nanoparticles synthesized using the flower extract of <em>Ipomoea quamoclit </em>had a notably marked reduction in biofilm formation against <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>. This paves the way in designing a new alternative therapeutic management of biofilm associated infections in future.</p> Manikandan Kathirvel Kannaki Pasupathi Sivajothi Dhamodaran Sushmitha Selvakani Kabilan G Mariappan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 471 479 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.42 Green Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles and its effect on the growth of Zea mays L. <p style="text-align: justify;">In the present study, an attempt was made to analyze the growth of <em>Zea mays</em> L. supplemented with Silver nanoparticles in different concentration (20ppm, 40ppm and 60ppm). Silver nanoparticles was synthesized from leaf extract of <em>Zea mays</em> L. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized and confirmed using UV-Vis spectrometric analysis, SEM, and FTIR analysis. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticle was confirmed by colour change and the peak at 500 nm using UV Visible spectrophotometer. Seed germination and In vivo growth analysis of <em>Zea mays</em> L. supplemented with silver nanoparticles exhibited maximum growth at 60 ppm concentration. Accumulation of silver nanoparticle in the plant was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy.</p> Sriram Thiruvengadam Mareeswari Ganesan Pandidurai Vanniappan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 480 488 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.43 Effect of bacterial endophytes - Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth and yield of Brinjal var. Annamalai in field trial <p style="text-align: justify;">The trial was carried out in agriculture field, Karaikal during the season of June- September to test the efficacy of isolated bacterial endophytes from the roots of brinjal as microbial inoculants in seeds along with inorganic fertilizers in soil on growth, yield and some biochemical constitutions of brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena</em> L.) and considering the growth, yield and the biochemical constitutions, the data revealed that maximum parameters were recorded in T<sub>6</sub> and The results showed that the application of microbial inoculants and inorganic fertilizers and their combinations significantly influenced the growth, yield, quality and biochemical contents of brinjal. The mixed application of 100% Chemical fertilizer with combination of <em>Azospirillum brasilense</em> and <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> received best performance of brinjal compared to other treatments.</p> Sivagamasundari U A Gandhi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 489 495 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.44 Extracellular Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Soil Isolate of Staphylococcus sp. <p style="text-align: justify;">Nanoparticles are congregate of atoms ranging in size from 1-100nm. There exists three basic ways of nanoparticle synthesis- physical synthesis, chemical synthesis and green synthesis. The limitations for the first two methods led to the development of green synthesis which is economical and less harmful for the environment. Green synthesis uses living forms like bacteria, virus, fungi, algae as well as plant extracts. Nanoparticles produced from bacteria are based on the principle of microbial metal reduction. The synthesis process can either be extracellular or intracellular depending on the type of microorganisms used. The present study highlights the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from soil isolates of <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp. and <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp. The bacterial cultures after isolation were acclimatized in increasing concentration of silver nitrate in growth media and subsequently used for synthesis process. The nanoparticles formed by both the organisms were characterized by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, FTIR Analysis and Particle size analysis. The absorption maxima for <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp. and Staphylococcus sp. cell free extracts were obtained at 410 and 400nm which approximately corresponds to the size range of 20-40 nm and 10-20 nm, respectively. Though there are several reports related to <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp. being used for nanoparticle synthesis, there are very few reports related to the Staphylococcus sp. being used for the same. The study clearly indicates the capability of Staphylococcus sp. to form nanoparticles with physical properties comparable to the <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp.</p> Toshika Mishra Shrutidhara Kakoti Bannhi Das Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 496 502 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.45 Extraction of Dyes from Plant Sources and their application on Cotton and Wool using Mordants <p style="text-align: justify;">Dyeing is an ancient art, which was practiced during the Bronze Age in Europe. Primitive dyeing techniques included sticking plants to fabric or rubbing crushed pigments into cloth. The methods became more sophisticated over time and techniques were developed using natural dyes from crushed fruits, berries and other plants, which were boiled into the fabric and gave light and water fastness [resistance]. The widely and commercially used synthetic dyes impart strong colors but causes carcinogenicity and inhibition of benthic photosynthesis. Hence, use of natural dyes have become an importance in today’s world. In this study, Natural dyes have been extracted from different plant sources namely, Beeta Vulgaris (Beetroot), <em>Spinacia oleracea</em> (Spinach), <em>Ixora coccinea</em> (Jungle Geranium), <em>Brassica oleracea</em> var.<em> capitata f. rubra</em> (Purple Cabbage), and <em>Tagetes erecta</em> (African Marigold) using mordants like FeSO<sub>4</sub> and CuSO<sub>4</sub> On Cotton and Wool. It was seen that Wool takes up the dye better than cotton because vegetable fibers like cotton take up less dye than animal fibers like wool and CuSO<sub>4</sub> is a better mordant than FeSO<sub>4</sub>.</p> Varsha Kaur Selvam Arjunan Indira Nanaiah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 503 506 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.46 A study on the Electrolytes Concentration and Lipid Profile in Cardiac and Cardiovascular defective patients <p style="text-align: justify;">Cardiovascular diseases are common all over the world, and atherosclerosis of coronary arteries is considered to be the leading cause of premature death among men. Serum electrolyte concentrations after myocardial revascularization varied within normal ranges. Magnesium sulphate infusion did not decrease the rate of postoperative atrial fibrillation during the early postoperative period in normomagnesemic patients. The main risk factors for Cardiovascular diseases are age, male sex, hypercholesterolemia [especially in case of cholesterol with low density lipoproteins (LDL)], smoking, systemic hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to compare the serum electrolytes [Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca2+] concentration and lipid profile[cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL,LDL/HDL ratio and cholesterol/HDL ratio] of normal persons with cardiac and cardiovascular defective patients. Sodium concentration of cardiac and cardiovascular defective patients varied within normal ranges. Potassium concentration of cardiac and cardiovascular defective patients was very low, when compared with the normal persons. Chloride concentration of Cardiac and cardiovascular defective patients varied within the normal ranges. Calcium concentration of cardiac and cardiovascular defective patients was very high, when compared with the normal persons. Cholesterol, HDL, VLDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, cholesterol/HDL ratio varied within the normal ranges. Triglycerides concentration gets fluctuated and got increased in few cardiac and cardiovascular defective patients, when compared with normal persons.</p> Malathi R Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 507 510 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.47 Anti-diabetic activity by invitro inhibition of α-amylase enzyme and phytochemical screening of Phyllanthus niruri. <p style="text-align: justify;">Phyllanthus is a large genus of shrubs, trees and rare herbs of the family Euphorbiaceae, comprising more than 600 species <sup>[1]</sup>. The aim of this project was to identify the phytochemicals present in P. niruri and the antidiabetic activity of the ethanolic extracts of the plant. The phytochemical analysis for alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, phenols, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, carbohydrates and amino acids were made by following standard procedures. The antidiabetic property of the plant extract was evaluated using insulin as standards through inhibition of alphaamylase enzyme activity. The presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, carbohydrates, coumarins, anthraquinones and amino acids was observed. The total phenolic content in the extract was measured using catechol (standard) and a graph was plotted with concentration on X axis and absorbance on the Y axis. The total phenolic content was calculated. The calibration curves of α-amylase inhibition of Insulin and P. niruri was used to calculate the IC50 value.</p> Abina Rose Babu Ashna Sunny Diva Brijit John Shweta Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 511 518 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.48 Survey on crop varieties and agricultural practise of Karnataka <p style="text-align: justify;">Pursuing agriculture plays a very important role in the Indian economy. It is the backbone of our country. 70% of the population depends on agriculture for food and money. It is the major profession in the rural areas. The cultivation procedure mainly depends on climatic conditions and nature of soil parameters. Sustainable agronomy uses crops and its varieties that are better adapted to ecologically based production practices than those currently available, which bred for high-input agriculture. This survey exclusively shares the recent times of agricultural practices being used from 90’s till date in the 21st Century. We have investigated about 25 different varieties of crops from 7 different regions from the state of Karnataka. The widespread surveys have shown different parameters to ensure the geographical area, flora &amp; fauna and other crop parameters in traditional practice. For instance, in this era more of commercially and ready-to-use practices are followed more than the manual or man-made. There is always a negative side for the positive outcome even in agricultural sectors. Even plants are considered to be humans that live on its shelter and depend on food.</p> Shahi P Ismail Ismail U Sivagamasundari Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 519 523 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.49 Bioactive potential and pharmacological activity of Psidium guajava <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study, was aimed to extract the peroxidase enzyme from the leaves of Psidium guajava and optimized its activity at different temperatures, pH and substrate concentration. The activity of the Guava peroxidase was determined by enzyme assay and the specific activity of the enzyme was determined by protein estimation. The amount of the protein present in the Guava sample was found to be 7.0mg.The specific activity of the protein was 0.03u/ml/mg. Thermal inactivation was studied in 10mM Tris – Hcl buffer pH (8.0). The activity of Guava peroxidase was found stable in 3 different time intervals of 5, 10, and 15mins. Guava peroxidase protein profiling by SDS-PAGE revealed the molecular weight of leaf sample was 55KDa.The maximum activity of the Guava leaf peroxidase was on pH 5.0, temperature 70ºc. Further the study also demonstrates the antimicrobial potential of <em>Psidium guajava</em> leaves extract by using various solvents. The results indicate that ethanol is solvent of better choice than distilled water for the extraction. The observed inhibition of gram positive bacteria, s.aureus suggest that Guava possesses compounds containing antibacterial properties that can effectively suppress the growth when extracted using ethanol as the solvent. On the basis of the present finding,<em> P. guajava</em> leaves possess the capabilities of being a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent against infections and/or diseases caused by <em>S. aureus</em>.</p> Vijayanand S Kashmeera George Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 524 539 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.50 Identification, Isolation and Characterization of Poly-Hydroxy Butyrate (PHB) Producing Bacteria, and Extraction of the PHB Granule <p style="text-align: justify;">Plastics, a non-renewable and non-degradable material have become one of the reasons for health crisis. Negative impact of plastic use on wild life and human health looks for an alternate that meets the requirement of human needs and also reduce the nuisance caused to the nature. Plastics that are bio based and degradable and similar to the properties of synthetic plastic is the solution to the problem and are termed as bio-plastics. In the present work, an attempt was made to isolate polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) producing microorganisms from two different samples, garage soil sample and root nodules of <em>Trigonella </em><em>foenum</em>-<em>graecum</em> leaves. The study also focused on the optimizing cultural conditions for the two isolated and identified PHB producing microorganisms, Bacillus subtillis and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> by changing the parameters, viz., incubation time, pH, carbon source and nitrogen source. Maximum PHB was obtained when the media was supplemented with Glucose as Carbon source for both <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, Ammonium nitrate as Nitrogen source for <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and Urea for <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>. The optimum pH was found to be pH 7 for both <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and the optimum temperature was found to be 37˚C for <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and 30˚C for Bacillus subtilis. The study also showed that <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> yields more PHB than<em> Bacillus subtilis</em> in comparison.</p> Ananya V Pradeek P Vaishnavi G Esther Shoba R Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 540 544 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.51 An interesting approach for Biofilm disruption by Thermocouple device <p style="text-align: justify;">Microbial biofilm are an aggregate of microbial population encompassed in a matrix of self secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In various sectors from human health to industries biofilm bring with it an array of harmful impacts. For instance, biofilm linked diseases like chronic otitis, chronic osteomyelitis, urinary tract infections, cystic fibrosis-associated lung infection etc. cannot be treated with regular antibiotics since profound use of the same have led to the existence of several drug resistant strains. Effective techniques for combating this bacterial biofilm are still a challenging issue to the scientific community. Towards this direction, in the present study efforts have been put to use electric shock generated by a thermocouple device to disrupt bacterial biofilm formation. The uniqueness of the procedure lies with the method of generation of the electric shock, wherein a difference in temperature has been exploited to create the shock. Using this method, electric shocks of 105μV was applied for different durations on bacterial biofilm formed by <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp. and <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp. In each case a difference in response was observed which led to the conclusion that Staphylococcal biofilm as well as <em>Pseudomonal</em> biofilm are susceptible to the electric shocks. Hence, this interesting method of usage of low voltage electric shock could be a potential method to fight against biofilm threats.</p> Krithika Parthiban Pragya Tamarakar Mahua Ghosh Priya Gopal Prosun Tribedi Bannhi Das Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 545 549 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.52 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Colacasia Escullenta, Abutilon Indicum and Muntinga Calabura <p style="text-align: justify;">The Development of well-grounded and eco-hospitable methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important step in the field of nanotechnology. Silver nanoparticles are dominant because of their exceptional chemical, physical, and biological properties, and hence applications. In the last decade, countless efforts were made to develop green methods of synthesis to avoid the hazardous by products. The advantages of using plant and plant-derived materials for biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles have made a keen remark on researchers to investigate mechanisms of metal ions uptake and bio-reduction by plants, and to understand the possible mechanism of metal nanoparticle formation in plants. This review describes the methods of green synthesis for Ag-NPs and their countless applications. It also narrates the comparison of efficient synthesis methods via green routes over physical and chemical methods, which provide strong corroboration for the selection of suitable method for the synthesis of Ag-NPs. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of silver nanoparticles. The characteristics of the obtained silver nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).</p> Vijayanand S Shahi P Ismail Manaswi Manohar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 15 5 550 555 10.5530/ctbp.2021.3s.53