piRNA: Basics and their Association with PIWI proteins

Order of Publishing in Issue: 
9
Volume :8
Issue :3
July, 2014
Page No: 
303-308
Authors: 
Pandya, G. M.[1*] , Ramani, U. V. [2] , Janmeda, M. [1] , Dangar, N. S. [3] , Tyagi, K. [4] , Brahmkshtri, B. P. [3] and Kharadi, V. B. [1]
Address: 
[1] Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Veterinary College, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. 396450
Address: 
[2] Department of Animal Biotechnology, Veterinary College, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. 396450
Address: 
[3] Department of ILFC, Veterinary College, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. 396450
Address: 
[4] Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. 396450
Email-ID: 
gmpandya@nau.in

P element wimpy testis-induced (Piwi)- interacting RNAs, popularly known as piRNAs, are one of the most recently identified small non coding class of RNAs. Because of their association with Piwi proteins, they are known as piRNAs. These molecules are reported to have the sequence length of 23 – 31 nucleotides with abundant expression in the testis. The origin of these molecules takes place from the piRNA clusters located on the genome. The biogenesis of these molecules takes place in two steps beginning with Primary Pathway followed by Ping- Pong cycle, with certain exceptions. The molecules play an important role in germline stability by silencing transposable and non transposable elements, epigenetic regulations, DNA methylation, long term memory functions and canalization. There are many aspects of piRNA, including biogenesis and functionality, the clear understanding of which requires more studies. This review summarizes the facts of piRNAs, genomics of piRNAs, apart from their biogenesis and functionality part, reported till date.

Keywords: 
piRNAs, genomics of piRNA, PIWI proteins
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