L-Asparaginase a Biotherapeutic for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia – A Molecular Perspective

Order of Publishing in Issue: 
10
Volume :11
Issue :4
October, 2017 - December, 2017
Page No: 
424-443
Authors: 
Manne Anupama Ammulu[1], Gorrepati Rosaiah[2], Usha Kiranmayi Managmauri[2], Praveen Kumar Vemuri[3], K.R.S.Sambasiva Rao[1] and P.Sudhakar[1]*
Address: 
[1]Department of Biotechnology, [2]Department of Botany and Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagrar, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India
Address: 
[3]Department of Biotechnology, KLUniversity, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India

L-asparaginase (L-asparagine amino hydrolase) is an enzyme which was clinically proved as an antitumor agent to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It catalyzes L-asparagine hydrolysis to L-aspartate and ammonia, and the depletion of asparagine causes cytotoxicity to leukemic cells. Microbial L-asparaginase (ASNase) production has attracted good attention regarding its cost effectiveness and ecofriendliness. The focus of this review is to provide a discussion regarding the microbial ASNase production, purification, its mechanism of action, sources, therapeutic side effects and focusing on the future prospects like protein engineering, recombinant microorganisms to develop a efficient therapeutics with significantly less side effects. This study is also focusing on the production of ASNases from new sources with improvement in the availability as a drug, and issues related to reducing the cost of the drug by improving the pharmacokinetics, pharmaco-dynamics and toxicological profiles in producing the ASNase enzyme.

Keywords: 
Microbial L-asparaginase production, Biopharmaceutical drug, Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia.
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