Endemic Brucellosis in Indian Animal and Human Populations: A Billion Dollar Issue

Order of Publishing in Issue: 
2
Volume :13
Issue :2
April, 2019 - June, 2019
Page No: 
112-123
Authors: 
Manasa Machavarapu[1,2], Revathi Poonati[2], Prudhvi Chand Mallepaddi[2], Vinayachandu V Gundlamadugu[3], Sujaya Raghavendra[4], Kavi Kishor B Polavarapu[2,3] and Rathnagiri Polavarapu[1,2,3]
Address: 
[1]Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur 522 510, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Address: 
[2]Genomix Molecular Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., Prashanthinagar, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500 072, India.
Address: 
[3]Genomix CARL Pvt. Ltd., Rayalapuram Road, Pulivendula-516 390, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India
Address: 
[4]Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi- 110 001, India

Brucellosis is a common and neglected zoonotic disease. It is endemic and still an uncontrolled public health problem in many developing countries including India. Present epidemiological data suggest that brucellosis is causing a major economic problem which burdens up to 3.4 billion US dollars per year. Due to insufficient awareness in public, safe livestock practices, trading the infected animals and economic burden of disease diagnosis and vaccination have led to persistence of brucellosis in the country. Paucity of epidemiological data obtained from previous survey programmes is not convincing enough with the degree of the disease prevalence in the country. Since India is sensitive from both religious and economic points of view, control of the disease has become a sensitive issue. Prevention of brucellosis is dependent on conducting adequate health education awareness and control programmes to address the disease depth of the issue in the country. This review discusses epidemiology, diagnostic methods, prevalence, and vaccines along with recent control measures adopted in Indian Scenario.

Keywords: 
Brucellosis, animal populations, zonotic disease, small ruminants, insufficient awareness, paucity of epidemiological data, awareness and control programmes.
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