DNA Repair Mechanisms as Drug Targets in Prokaryotes

Order of Publishing in Issue: 
1
Volume :5
Issue :3
July, 2011 - September, 2011
Page No: 
1206-1232
Authors: 
Lorena M. Coronado, Carolina I. De La Guardia, Yisett S. González, Carlos M. Restrepo and Nicole M. Tayler
Address: 
Center for Cellular & Molecular Biology of Diseases Institute for Scientific Research and Technology Services (INDICASAT) Building 219, City of Knowledge, Clayton, Republic of Panama

Abstract: Nowadays, a great amount of pathogenic bacteria has been identified such as Mycobacterium sp. and Helicobacter pylori andhave become a serious health problem around the world. These bacteria have developed several DNA repair mechanisms as a strategy toneutralize the effect of the exposure to endogenous and exogenous agents that will lead to two different kinds of DNA damage: singlestrand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs). For SSBs repair, bacteria use the base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excisionrepair (NER) mechanisms, which fix the damaged strand replacing the damaged base or nucleotide. DSBs repair in bacteria is performedby homologous recombination repair (HRR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). HRR uses the homologous sequence to fix the two damagedstrand, while NHEJ repair does not require the use of its homologous sequence. The use of unspecific antibiotics to treat bacterial infectionshas caused a great deal of multiple resistant strains making less effective the current therapies with antibiotics. In this review, we emphasizedthe mechanisms mentioned above to identify molecular targets that can be used to develop novel and more efficient drugs in future.

Keywords: 
DNA damage, antibiotic resistance, SSB, DSB, antimicrobial drugs, drug-resistant mutants, BER, NER, HRR, NHEJ.
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