Diphtheria: An Overview of Diagnosis and Therapeutic Applications

Order of Publishing in Issue: 
9
Volume :13
Issue :1
January, 2019 - March, 2019
Page No: 
72-82
Authors: 
Praveen Alagangula[1], Sridevi V Nimmagadda[1], Premalatha Dasari[2], Rajendra Lingala[*]
Address: 
[1]Indian Immunologicals Limited, Rakshapuram, Gachibowli, Hyderabad- 500032, Telangana, India
Address: 
[2]Department of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad- 500085, Telangana, India

Diphtheria is a dreadful disease caused by Cornybacteria diphtheria by secretion of diphtheria toxin by the presence of bacteriophage tox gene. It is one of the contagious diseases with a mortality rate of 5% to 10% worldwide.The disease resurgence in recent years alarmed the world as the numbers of cases are increasing in adult population due to low immune response towards diphtheria.Expanded diphtheria vaccination programs have been introduced in developing countries for more coverage and administration of booster doses to increase the immunity, though sporadic cases of Cornybacteria diphtheria are observed worldwide causing harmful effects.Emphasis was focused on the epidemically circulating Cornybacteria diphtheria for signs and symptoms of rapid diagnosis and treatment.Shift in the age group distribution of diphtheria and changes in the epidemiology of developing countries in the vaccine era led to strengthening of laboratory diagnosis. Rapid methods were developed for reliable and simple diagnosis in treatment of disease.Here, we describe the current laboratory approaches leading to diagnosis of diphtheria and prophylaxis.

Keywords: 
Monoclonal antibodies, Diphtheria, Laboratory diagnosis.
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