CRISPR: Genome -Editing and Beyond

Order of Publishing in Issue: 
9
Volume :11
Issue :2
April, 2017 - June, 2017
Page No: 
181-89
Authors: 
Sumiyah Rasool[*], Tufail Hussain[@], Asima Zehra[#], Shafat Khan[$] and Shafqat Khan[*]
Address: 
[*]Department of Microbiology, [#]Department of Public Health, [@]Department of Medicine, [$]Department of Horticultural Crop processing, SKUAST-K, Srinagar. J&K, 190001, India
Email-ID: 
szari720@gmail.com

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system has been seized upon with a fervor enjoyed previously by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technologies and has enormous potential for high-throughput functional genomics studies. Editing via (CRISPR)–CRISPR associated (Cas) constitutes a next-generation method for programmable and high through put functional genomics. CRISPR–Cas systems are readily reprogrammed to induce sequence-specific DNA breaks at target loci, resulting in fixed mutations via host-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Bacteria and archaea acquire resistance to invading viruses and plasmids by integrating short fragments of foreign nucleic acids at one end of the CRISPR locus. CRISPR loci are transcribed and the long primary CRISPR transcript is processed into a library of small RNAs that guide the immune system to invading nucleic acids, which are subsequently degraded by dedicated nucleases.

Keywords: 
CRISPR, Bacterial immunity, Gene editing.
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